Pig Breeding. The interdepartmental subject scientific digest of Institute of   Pig Breeding  and agroindustrial production NAAS  No. 64


No. 64





2.V.V.Zamykula.Economic expediency to transfer the the pedigree factories from a round system on a cyclic one of receiving farrows.



5.V.I. Piskun. Effectiveness of treatment technologies for wastewater use in commercial  pork production.

6.М.G.Povod. The dependence  of  reproduction characteristics of  French breeding  sows  on the conditions of their  keeping  during the  farrowing  period.


8. V.O. Ivanov,L.O. Ivanova, A.I. Plaskalnyi, Way of the determination of a stress resistance in pigs of the Large White breed and Landrace.


10.Т.А.Stryzhak, I.M.Martyniuk, O.S.Mirochnykova.Reproductive Qualities of boars of the breed Landrase of dOMestic and foreign selection.


12.V. I. Khalak. Biochemical indicators of blood serum of young pigs – markers early prediction of qualitative composition of meat and fat.


14.S.B.Kornyat, A.B.Andrushko, N.M.Sharan,  I.M.Jaremchuk.A change of kinematics indexes of the unfrozen sperm of boars during of incubation.

15.S.A.Sidashova, A.F.Saglo Functional asymmetry of paired gonads females cattle and pig: the study of fundamental and applied aspects.








V.M. Voloshchuk -adoctor of agricultural sciences


The modern level of a development of pig breeding demands building new industrial complexes which allows to get more number of high quality young pigs and conducting effectively the field. It was worked out the investment project for building high technological without waste industrial complex for rearing and for fattening pigs with the closed cycle of production with a power on 24000 heads on a year.

The basic direction of a realization of the production and the sale of meat products, namely: high quality meat, tinned and sausage products and the possible export collaboration with countries of near an distant abroad. The created project foresees the pork production at a live weight to 2780.5 t a year, using 10-11.5000 t of feed-stuffs, energy ensuring of the complex at the expanse of remaking manure and minimum influence of the production on an environment. It was offered the current shop technology with 7-days rhythm and maximum term of rearing and fattening animals and it is not more than 182 days. The industrial pig complex includes of : the production and manure repository with a capacity of 16,5 000 t for half-year keeping manure, grain repository with a capacity of 85 heads/ day, remaking shop for production of 3.2 t meat tins/day.

The total sum of investments consist of 18976852 Euro, including expenditures to build premises and constructions—8150387 Euro, for buying equipment and its setting-up-7706264 Euro. The covering the expense of a project from a day of putting the complex into full power is 46 months. The level of an efficiency is 82 %. An average yearly profit after the payment of percentages is 2.92 millions Euro.







Economic expediency to transfer the the pedigree factories from a round system on a cyclic one of receiving farrows

V.V.Zamykula-a candidate of science in State management, person working for degree of doctor


         It has been considered the question of changing the efficiency of the work of enterprises with rearing pedigree pigs at transferring from a round system on a cyclic one of receiving farrows. It is given grounds of the expediency in transferring the pedigree factories on a new system of work and it is pointed out the dependence of a profitableness of economic activity from the level of technological parameters. It is given the way of an appliance of computer programs for an operative elaboration for the prognosis in reference to probable changes of the profit of economic activity in pedigree factories at the change of a technological approach to manufacturing the pedigree production.

         After transferring the pedigree factory on a cyclic system of receiving farrows  it can have the number of received offspring to 25 heads. It allows:

–                               to raise the efficiency of using farrow machines in 5-6 times;

–                               to increase the number of reared live-stock on one box-place;

–                               to receive rhythmically and to realize the quality pedigree production.       

At the expense of a change of the part of fodder ingredients in the structure of 

a diet it is possible to achieve reducing the average cost of combined feed-stuff to 2800 grn/t without reducing its nutritious value, to increase gains on fattening to 750...800g and a level of the profitableness to 43...50%.

         Means, which were put in the reconstruction of buildings in a pedigree enterprise with simultaneous transferring on a cyclic system of receiving farrows, returns to ending the second year of the work.

Key words: pig breeding, pedigree factories, cyclic and round farrows, intensity of using sows, pork production, economical effectiveness, profitableness.






 The basic results of studies on the effects of welfare of young pigs feeding on the performance intensity of its growth. It was determined that fattening young pigs, which are kept in boxes in the number of 27 heads at the density of putting 0.72 m2 comparatively with keeping in the number of 30 heads with the area of a box 0.65 m2, increases a live weight of animals at taking from fattening in the age of 175 days on 5.8%, average daily gains – on 2.7-20.1% and reduces the age of an achievement of live weight of 100 kg on 4.9 day.

Key words: fattening, young pigs, density of holding, average daily gains.




M.Y. Ivanov – director of LLC “Ecoenergobud”

V.O. Ivanov – a doctor of agricultural sciences


       In the article it is lit up the problem for the determination of a quality of the manure flowing homogenization In reservoirs averagers-hoarders, which has a further relation to their treatment and cleaning.

       It has been worked out the methodical approaches in reference to the determination such indexes of the quality of a process of mixing manure flowing as: a stability of flowing during their homogenization; the term to an achievement of maximum stability of flowing for a contain of solid fraction; the term for a maintenance of maximum stability of flowing for FSF in a quiet state for the determination of term diapason in reference to working the mixer; area and  volume of “ dead zones of mixing (congestion of the precipitation, crust) choosing the type of mixer depend on the geometry of a reservoir and a contain of solid fraction; a contain of solid fraction more than 0.25 mm, which precipitates ( for lowering the mistake at the determination of the stability of flowing under conditions of the laboratory of a pig complex with minimum exploiting equipment).

Key words: manure flowing, homogenization, mixers, utilization, solid fraction, reservoir, cleaning, stability.



Effectiveness of treatment technologies for wastewater use in commercial  pork production

V.I. Piskun, a doctor of agricultural sciences


The results of determining the effectiveness of treatment technologies for complex effluents pork production. Using press FAN produces a solid fraction of 68.9 % moisture, and a liquid fraction - at 98.6 % moisture 96.7% of the starting manure. Using gravity treatment provides liquid fraction 99.28-99.45 % humidity, and the solid fraction is 73.18-76.7 %. Press FAN operating experience over four years showed that the equipment on the one hand requires large capital investments for overhaul, and on the other - in the operation deteriorates the separation efficiency, which leads to the entry ponds - Drives solids waste.

Key words : waste separation efficiency, liquid, solid fraction, and the precipitate, humidity.



The dependence  of  reproduction characteristics of  French breeding  sows  on the conditions of their  keeping  during the  farrowing  period

М.G.Povod-a  candidate of agricultural  science, assistant professor

It was studied  the dependence  of reproduction characteristics of sows  Galaxy  900 on the conditions  of their   keeping  during the  yield and farrowing  period.  It was determined   the dependence of sows’ behavior and their reproduction characteristics  on  conditions of their keeping. The animals which were kept in mating stalls during the whole farrowing  had  higher fertilization ratio. The  sows  which were kept in mating stalls during  the  whole farrowing  period  after  removing  to farrowing pen  behaved  more  calm  in comparison with the  animals which  were  kept  in  groups without  fixation.

The polycarpous rate of sows which were kept in groups  without  fixation  has lowering  tendency. But  heavy litter rate has opposite  tendency.  The heavy litter rate of sows which  were kept in groups   without  fixation was higher than this rate of sows   which  were kept in mating stalls during  the  whole farrowing period. While the  sows which  were kept in  mating stalls has   the lowest  heavy litter rate. The sows which  were kept in mating stalls during the farrowing period  had the highest  safety rate  of piglets  at the  weaning . They also had  higher number of piglets  at the weaning . Piglets weigh at the weaning had tendency  of reducing   in the   sows which were  kept in groups during  farrowing period  in comparison with    the animals which were kept in  mating stalls. The  sows  which were kept  in groups  during farrowing period  were able better to  be rutting after farrowing.

Key words: technology, condition of keeping, sow, piglet, polycarpous,  heavy litter , safety,  weight  of piglet.




M.D. Berezovskyi – a doctor of agricultural sciences


          It is lit up the problem questions which are concerned to improving the organization forms in reference to conducting the pedigree pig breeding in Ukraine. It is given the peculiarities of a selection of pigs in foreign countries. The pedigree pig breeding of Denmark was taken as a basis. A special feature of Danish selection is the clear organization of work of nucleus herds and the first turn is carrying out the estimation of boars for phenotype and genotype under conditions of the testing station and also testing the method of artificial insemination and hybridization in pig breeding.

          In reference to Ukrainian pedigree base it is recommended to carry changes into the function activity of pedigree factories and pedigree farms.In organizing plan pedigree factories were divided on 2 categories: basic and filial (in reference to basic).It is necessary to transfer pedigree farms on the reproduction of two breed gilts to realize them in different categories of commodity enterprises. Thus it is possible to widen getting pork on the hybrid base.

          It is offered to build 4 testing stations on 3000 places for pigs in each one; to widen the authority of main and zonal breeders who work with breeds of pigs. To create selective and hybrid centers on the base of leading pig complexes; to create the associations for breeds of pigs; to widen scales of hybridization taking for work objects of pedigree and commodity pig breeding.

          For the coordination of solving a complex of questions in reference to conducting pig breeding field it is necessary to create the National Council with pig breeding including scientists and breeders-experts.

Key words: selection, breeds, pedigree base, system of hybridization, pedigree factories, pedigree farms, counsels, associations, pork production.




Way of the determination of a stress resistance in pigs of the Large White breed and Landrace

V.O. Ivanov – a doctor of agricultural sciences

L.O. Ivanova – a candidate of agricultural sciences

A.I. Plaskalnyi – a postgraduate student


In conditions of  LLC of the pedigree factory CJSC “Freedom Farm” in Kherson region it was carried out researches of peculiarities of the growth of weaned piglets of the Large White breed and Landrace of English selection with a different adapted and ethological norm.

Piglets are divided on three classes by the reaction on stress factors: inclined to stress, stress doubtful and stress indefinite. It is given the characteristic of different ways of the determination of adapted and ethological status of weaned piglets in crisis period. It has been determined, that inclined to stress piglets don’t depend on the breed can be definited for the formalin test (on the first day), index of the aggression (on the third day) and coefficient of the change of live weight (on the tenth day). The described ways are informative and can be used in practical pig breeding.

Key words: breed, piglets, adaptation, inclined to stress.




О.Izhboldina –a candidate of agricultural sciences


The article presents the results of organoleptic evaluation of the meat purebred and cross-breed of pigs  Large White breed, mixedbred and hybrid pigs, obtained by crossing and cross-breed of purebred sows with breed Landrace and grunts specialized meat genotype Hungarian breeding. Held a tasting of meat and broth. Dependence of the probed indexes is certain on the genotype of experimental young pigs .It is established that the best tasting qualities differed samples  meat from the carcasses of hybrid pigs. The improvement of smell is marked, to tenderness and succulence of standards meat from the carcasses of young  pigs got at the use of male hogs of the Hungarian selection. Was the highest estimation got by clear soups from the standards of meat young pigs of genotypes  ? LW ? L and ? LW ? L – 23,90 - 22,5 mark accordingly.

Key words: young pigs, carcass, meat, hybrid, genotype.



Reproductive Qualities of boars of the breed Landrase of dOMestic and foreign selection

Т.А.Stryzhak – a candidate of agricultural sciences

I.M.Martyniuk – a junior research worker

O.S.Mirochnykova – a candidate of veterinarian sciences


It was analysed the causes from which depend on a level of reproductive ability and the sperm quality of boars. It is given the results of a work of the pedigree enterprise with rearing pigs of the breed Landrace of modern genotypes of domestic and foreign selection. It has been determined that at valuing the sperm productivity of experimental animals the sperm of a high quality was  received from adult boars of the breed Landrace of French selection. However domestic boars were better for the index of an output of offspring.

Key words: boars, the breed Landrace, sperm production, fertilization ability, multifertility, pedigree enterprise, station of an artifificial insemination of pigs, modern genotypes of pigs, domestic and foreign selection.




Т.А.Strizhak -a candidate of agricultural sciences


In the article on the example of tribal loud-speaker of LTD. "Agroservise of LTD" the Chuguyev district of the Kharkiv region factors the fattening productivity depends on that are analysed, and results over of the control fattening to the sapling/pl of pigs of different genotypes are brought. Comparative studies of fattening internalss are undertaken to the sapling/pl of pigs depending on combinations. At comparison of basic indexes of experience groups, set, that duration of fattening the of pure breed animals of breed of ландрас of the German selection had more short than for the persons of the same age of the investigated groups, at high payment of feed, but at simultaneous reduction of прижиттєвої thickness of lard on a trunk. Crossing positively influenced on fattening and м'ясо-сальні internalss помісного to the sapling/pl of pigs, that appeared скороспілими animals and differed in the best average daily increases of living mass, high payment of feed, less thickness of lard, in comparing to the persons of the same age. Positive influence of кнурів-плідників of breed of ландрас of German plant-breeding direction is marked on the improvement of fattening and м'ясо-сальних signs for помісних pigs. The priority ways of decision of problem of increase of the productivity of pigs are set.

Key words: pigs, LANDRACE, genotype, average daily increase, thickness of lard, eyelids of achievement of living mass 100 kg, control fattening.



Biochemical indicators of blood serum of young pigs – markers early prediction of qualitative composition of meat and fat

V. I. Khalak -a candidate of agricultural sciences

The results of research on the biochemical parameters of blood serum , physics-chemical and chemical composition of muscle tissue and subcutaneous fat young pigs.

Found that animals of large white breed at the age of 6 months (n = 25) of the total protein content - 71,28 ± 1,164 g / l , the concentration of albumin - 38,86 ± 0,708 g/l, globulin - 32,42 ± 1,089 g/L, AST activity - 1,33 ± 0,074 mmol/hr/l, ALT - 1,87 ± 0,063 mmol/hour/liter , the activity of alkaline phosphatase - 291,99 ± 12,517 IU/L, the concentration of total lipoproteins - 778,88 ± 23,849 mg% cholesterol content - 1,94 ± 0,121 mg/dL. Physics-chemical and chemical indicators samples longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous fat, according to the existing quality assessment scale meat belonged to high, normal and low quality.

The experiment showed that animals in which the meat on the basis of the "soft" are classified as "high quality", as compared to animals of the opposite categories ("low quality") were characterized by lower rates of total protein content (6.73 g/l), albumin concentration (0.68 g/l ), globulins (6.05 g/l ), and cholesterol content (0.67 mmol/l). According to AST and ALT activity difference between the groups was 0.31 and 0.14 mmol / h / l. Maximum values of alkaline phosphatase activity and concentrations of total lipoprotein found in animals whose meat is classified as "normal quality" - 305,6 ± 13, 33 U / l and 789,1 ± 27,81 mg%. Significant difference with probability P > 0.95 found between average "alkaline phosphatase activity" animal categories "normal quality" and "low quality" - 46.5 U / l . Analysis of biochemical parameters of blood serum of young pigs whose meat on a water-holding capacity of the category "high quality" indicates that the content of total protein, globulin concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity they conceded peers of the opposite categories ("low quality") at 2.28 g/l 3.5 g / l and 38.6 U/l, respectively.

In animals, the meat of which belonged to the category of "high quality", the difference between animals on ALT activity and concentrations of total lipoprotein was 0.05 mmol/h/l and 170.9 mg%. Maximum Performance "albumin concentration»,g/L", " AST activity , mmol/h/l " and "cholesterol content", mmol/L " found in animals with "normal" quality meat. Found that the meat of young pigs of the experimental group by the color intensity of the category "high" and "normal" quality. Comparative characteristics of biochemical indices of blood serum shows that animals which belong to the quality of the meat category "high" value, characterized by a lower total protein content of 0.11 g / l, albumin concentration - 1.14 g / l of alkaline phosphatase activity - 75.6 U / l cholesterol content - 0.21 mmol / l. Globulin concentration , the activity of AST , ALT and total lipoprotein they prevailed animals with "normal" quality meat at 1.04 g / l , 0.37 and 0.37 mmol / h / l and 87.8 mg %, respectively.

Thus, the effective performance of early prediction of high-quality meat for tenderness, water-holding capacity , the intensity of color and the fat content is a selection of animals with total protein 66,9-71,2 g / l , the concentration of albumin - 36,3-38 , 0 g / l globulin - 30,5-3,2 g / l, the cholesterol content - 1,77-1,98 mmol / L, the activity of ACAT -1 ,02 -1 , 63 mmol / hr / l , ALT -1 , 83-2,16 mmol / hour / liter.

Key words:young pigs, biochemical parameters, serum, muscle tissue, subcutaneous.




P. V. Denysiuk –a candidate of  biological sciences


In the modern conditions of intensive industrial animal breeding, it has become profitably to obtain animals preferably of one sex. To point out someone else mean of sex determination is the goal of the research. Its materials are articles which deal with the problem and our theoretical developments based on experimental investigations with the use of oscillatory environmental conditions. The method of the work is an analysis of its material and further development of ideas about sex determination from oscillatory point of view as a methodological approach which is based on the method of dialectics. Environmental conditions and organisms oscillate and fluctuate and so alternatively reach opposite states in values of their parameters – maximums and minimums. Differentiation of opposite states of environmental conditions and its divergence are the cause of origination of sexes. In the male and female individuals, male and female states or states which promote determination male and female sex, respectively, also exist. Change of constant environmental conditions for oscillatory ones is not only beneficial for growth and development of an organism but also permits to move apart in space and time and to distinguish its opposite states one of which promotes determination of male sex and another does female sex. Mating of female or artificial insemination of it (and obtaining sperm in the case) has to be done only in the determined phase of every biorhythm of medium parameter oscillation connected only with one extreme (maximal or minimal) value. It is needed to organize oscillation of environmental conditions so that the phases of biorhythms of changes every of important oscillatory parameters which are beneficial for obtaining necessary sex coincide. Useful for obtaining the goal are biorhythms: daily, 12-daily, monthly (connected with Lune) an annual. Useful for obtaining the goal are environmental conditions: temperature, size of daily portion of forage, contrast between morning and evening forage, illumination, motion...




A change of kinematics indexes of the unfrozen sperm of boars during of incubation

S.B.Kornyat, A.B.Andrushko, N.M.Sharan,  I.M.Jaremchuk


In the article the results of researches of change of kinematics indexes of the unfrozen sperm of boars are resulted duringof incubation got by the  system of CASA – Sperm Vision. Lowering of the indicated indexes of the unfrozen sperm of boars is set in the probed standards like falling of its activity and relative amount of spermatozoa with progressive motility.

Key words: boars, unfrozen sperm, kinematic indexes.



Functional asymmetry of paired gonads females cattle and pig: the study of fundamental and applied aspects

S.A.Sidashova – а сandidate of аgricultural sciences

A.F.Saglo – а candidate of biological sciences


Scientists began fixation of data asymmetry of paired organs of the body systems in animals and humans, even 150 years ago, but until now this mysterious phenomenon has no explanation. Proposed by different researchers concept (pathological, genetic, cytogenetic, chemical, ecological and others) consider the phenomenon of asymmetry only some parts or organs, not explaining the biological value of the functional asymmetry of  bilateral organisms in General. In the last years a leading role in the emergence of asymmetry of different organs that are attached to the inter hemispheric asymmetry of a brain, but such studies mainly concern the person. Moreover, a debate continues about whether   the IMA brain General tendency for all species of animals or privilege only of the form Homo sapiens with   of higher language abilities.

Studies in laboratory animals have been conducted in recent times, testify the presence of brain asymmetry all species of animals, including agriculture. Therefore, for the consideration of the problem of the origin and practical importance for breeding and productivity of different species and breeds of agricultural animals of the prevalence of functional asymmetry of paired organs, it is necessary to carry out systematic and comparative research to study this phenomenon in norm and pathologies. For the theoretical study research methodology we used the conclusions of evolutionary concept asynchronous asymmetry, developed by the Russian scientists (Geodakyan V.A. and others, 1987-2003).

 According to this concept asymmetry is adaptive sign adaptation of animals to changing environmental conditions and in the process of evolution asymmetry continues being louder. General biological principle towards asymmetry of  bilaterally animals and humans is to reduce risks in the response of organisms or species as a whole on factors - environmental stimuli  with split into two subsystems. Conservative subsystem, which includes female, left paired organs and right hemisphere of the brain changes more slowly (asynchronous) and saves successful evolutionary characteristics. As the operational system, which consists of the male sex, the right organs and the left hemisphere of the brain quickly changes under the influence of environmental factors and promotes evolutionary progress.

Based on the findings of evolutionary concept of asymmetrization of organisms, brain and body of species of animals in the conditions of quickly changing environment, should show signs of increasing asymmetry of different organs. But remain unresolved questions about the species, population or organ’s  norms of asymmetry for the different systems of animals, their breed differences, the intensity of the impact of environmental and technological factors, the boundaries between adaptive growing asymmetry and pathological changes and other Breeders according to generally accepted rules picked breeding animals with a maximally symmetric body structure traditional approaches to animal breeding come from completely opposite requirements for selection: selection rules require selection and breeding animals with a maximally symmetric body structure (the same principles apply to the structure of the internal organs). And asymmetric deviations in the exterior considered defects. Such animals are deliberately excluded by artificial selection from participation in the formation of breeds and lines. At the same time in a natural process has an opposite trend.

Our research proved that the dominance of the right ovary is relative and dynamically fluctuates under the influence of various external factors in different herds of cows. Our studies revealed that the induction of the sexual cycle synthetic drugs prostaglandins slightly rejects the asymmetry in the left side of the ovarian follicular phase, but in luteal phase of population level of the lateral ratio of ovarian left/right reversed. It says about the action mechanism of conservation of bilateral equilibrium in the integrated function of reproduction females cattle under the control of the higher brain departments. The use of drugs FSH stimulation poli ovulation of cow - donors embryos showed a significant and reliable shift of activity of the left ovary, including inversion domination. Changes morph - functional indices ovarian cows and heifers during sexual cycle had signs of enantiomorphism, but the conceptual - terminological apparatus of this phenomenon in biology require further development and improvement.

We have developed innovative methodological apparatus for researches of parameters of the functional asymmetry of paired gonads in females of cattle and pigs. The methodological approach was based on the system using the structural - functional analysis.  Statistical and comparative analyses of the database collected by biotechnological methods (palpation ovarian cows and heifers the cyclic method).  Summary   results of research for the first time revealed the population structure of the functional asymmetry of the ovaries of   cattle, reliably characteristic of different dairy breeds and probably a specific norm. Swine this structure was revealed in trends (lack of data has prevented statistical processing). Functional asymmetry of paired gonads   cattle on the results of the research was isomorphic, dynamic and harmonious proportional. The revealed regularities confirm the findings of evolutionary concept of asynchronous asymmetry in developing kinds of animals, but require further systematic research to find effective ways to breeding and improvement of technology of livestock production. Proposed and adapted the methodology of research of functional asymmetry of paired gonads females cattle  and pigs demonstrated significant potential to continue studying the regularities lateral  organs that are different species.

Key words: methodological, structural analyses, functional analyses, cow, pig, ovaries, follicle, luteal phase, sex cycle, poliovulation, lateral asymmetry, structure, ratio the proportion, regularity of organization, adapt genesis.