Pig Breeding. The interdepartmental subject scientific digest of Institute of   Pig Breeding  and agroindustrial production NAAS  No. 66

 

№66

 

Zmist

 

1. V.M.Voloshchuk, D.D.Chertkov, А.О.Оnyshchenko. Single-phase housing sows in the reproductive shop

 

2. V.M.Voloshchuk, V.O.Ivanov, N.M.Pohribna. Estimation and selection of boars for the stress stability of offspring

 

3. I.M.Ksyonz, L.V.Lepeta.Technology of growing gnotobiotic piglets and their adoption of the SPF-status

 

4. Герасимов В. И., Данилова Т. Н., Скляренко Е. В., Хохлов А. М., Чалый А. И., Сагло А. Ф. Specialty of pig growing using  different technologies

 

5. KhandkaryanV.N., ParkhomenkoI.A., KurmanA.F., LepetaL.V., МatyuhV.O. Influence of temperature on productivity and health of Pigs

 

6.N.D. Berezovskyy, T.S. Kodak. Age-relate chnges of growth and development of young pigs of different genotypes

 

7. L.P.Gryshyna. The influence of the number of farrowing sows on productive signs under the industrial complex

 

8. V.I.Herasimov, O.V.Skliarenko, O.D.Donskyh. Peculiarities of the correlation of selective traits in pigs of different direction of the productivity

 

9. V.P.Rybalko, L.V.Floka. Changes of blood indexes in sows in different physiological periods

 

10. G.A. Birta, Yu.G,Burgu. Meat and fat Qualities of Different genotypes of Pigs

 

11. S. Sidashova,  L. Peretyatko.,A. Onyshehenco. Lateral differentiation   number of nipples   for pigs of different breed

 

12. O. G. Fesenko.The results of the selection process in breeding herds of red white belt breed

 

13. СкляренкоО. В., ХохловА. М., ДаніловаТ. М., ГерасимовВ. І., СаглоО. Ф. Domestic and foreign genetic fund in a commercial pig breeding of Ukraine

 

14. .B.Bankovska, L.O.Ivanova. Formation of data bases for the analisis of meat production of pigs and the quality of pig breeding products

 

15. K.F. Pochernyaev.The effect of genetic isolation and migration on a haploid diversity Red White Belted breed meaty pigs

 

16. A.M. Shostia. Prooxidant and antioxidant homeostasis in plasma and sperm of boars of the large black breed

 

17. A.V. Bazalevych. Appliance of small sperm doses in pig breeding

 

18.P.V. Denysiuk, K.V. Kniaz’ieva. Some physiological basis of heterosis

 

19. S.A. Semenov, O.A. Bindiug, S.G. Zinoviev, D.O. Bindiug. The quality of boars’ sperm after feeding them mineral bioprotectors «Mg++»

 

20.A.V. Korobka, O.K. Bitlian,T.M.Konks. Influence of physical properties of components in premixes on technological process of their production, transporting, keeping and using in systems of feed distribution

 

21. ХохловА. М., СкляренкоЕ. В., ДаниловаТ. Н., ГерасимовВ. И., СаглоА. Ф.Production of commodity pork on small farms

 

22. O.L. Narizhna. Line measurements and indexes of the constitution of young pigs received from different combinations of parental forms

 

23. T.V.Shcherban.Сhemical indicators of muscles of various localization in pigs of Mirgorodska breed and its crosses

 

24. M.V Fydria. Research stress sensitivity of piglets by method “formalin spot”

 

25. А.М.Saienko, V.N.Balatsky. Communication genotype loci ESR1, PRLR, GH and IGF2 with reproductive traits and individual indexes own productivity in sows interbreed type 3.

 

26. D.Yu.Skarednov. Fattening and slaughter quality of growing pigs using the product deep hydrothermal treatment of soybean

 

27. I.A.Parkhomenko, K.F.Pochernyaev. Basic biochemical factiors of boar taint and methods of its reduction

 

28. СаглоО. Ф[XXI International Scientific Conference considering the main questions in the pig breeding] industry

 

29. Рибалко В. П., Сагло О. Ф. National seminar on creating and improving Red Bilopyasa pig meaty breed

 

30. ВолощукВ. М., РыбалкоВ. П., СаглоА. Ф.Glorious anniversary of the scientist and educator

 

31. Онищенко А. О., Фесенко О. Г. By the 57th anniversary of the scientist-breeder S.V.Akimova

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

 

V.M.Voloshchuk, D.D.Chertkov, А.О.Оnyshchenko. Single-phase housing sows in the reproductive shop

 

The results of researchers on the study of the influence of elaborated and used technological equipment on the microclimate in the premise, sex activity and reproductive ability of the influence of used technological equipment (unified individual sectional machine) under conditions of single-phase housing sows on improving microclimate in the premise and increasing sex activity and reproductive ability of animals. Suggested technological decisions ensure increasing multifertility of sows on 8.3 %; average live weight of  new born piglets on 9.7 %; decreasing feed expenditures on a sow on 23.5 %; decreasing energy expenditures in 7-8 times (from 15-16 %) of the traditional technology); to decrease the  contain  of ammonia in 8.3 times, sulphureted hydrogen in 5.4 times and microbe impurity in 2 times.

 

Key words: sectional machine, single-phase housing, motion, expended technology.

 

 

 

         2.

 

V.M.Voloshchuk, V.O.Ivanov, N.M.Pohribna. Estimation and selection of boars for the stress stability of offspring

 

  In the article it is lit up a new approach for the estimation of boars for stress stability of their offspring in the litter. Using the way of the determination of stress stability of piglets for the coefficient of changing live weight on 10-th day after effecting technological stresses as described in the patent of Ukraine 80923 it was carried out the estimation of boars on the adapted properties of offspring and worked out the methodical approach for the estimation of boars on the per cent of stress stable offspring in the litters received from inseminated sows by them . It has been determined that the number of stress stable piglets in the litter can be within 0-100%. The highest average daily gain of live weight (654-665g) was in offspring of boars which were in the litters where it was 60-100% of stress stable animals. It is not recommended to carry out the selection of boars from litters where there are 40% of less stable offspring as it will lead to decreasing average daily gains of offspring on 10-20g and increase the number of stress sensible animals to 40% in the litters. For the selection on this trait it is recommend to select boars in the litter   where there are 60-100% of stress stable offspring

 

Key words: way, estimation, pigs, boars,litter, offspring, piglets, stress stability, live weight, average daily gain.

 

 

 

 

 

         3.

 

I.M.Ksyonz, L.V.Lepeta.Technology of growing gnotobiotic piglets and their adoption of the SPF-status

 

The article is dedicated to the technology for sterile box keeping of germfree piglets obtained by means of sterile hysterotomy, hysterectomy or «sterile farrow». Gnotobioticpiglets are not only the most versatile biological model for studying various physiological processes of the microorganism under normal and pathological conditions, at testing different pharmacological preparations and fodders, but they also may be the base model at forming herds of specific pathogen free (SPF)pigs. Herds of pigs with the SPF status are free from major viral and bacterial infections (classical and African pig plague, brucellosis, Aujeszky's disease, atrophic rhinitis, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, enzootic pneumonia, reproductive and respiratory syndrome, etc.), that is, those causing significant economic damage. The paper describes peculiarities of care after such animals, their feeding and methodology of their adoption of the SPF-status by means of colonizing their gastro-intestinal tract with beneficial microflora. Particularly, the authors have presented the milk mixture formula, most closely imitating sow’s milk, and the feeding schedule for gnotobiotic piglets at different periods of their growing. The paper presents the scheme for colonizing the germfree piglets gastro-intestinal tract and some beneficial microflora strains, providing the efficient SPF-status adoption by gnotobiotic piglets. The developed technology has a biological basis and is the best for obtaining animals with well-controlled microflora, which is confirmed by the results of experimental studies carried out in 5 experiments on 49 piglets.

 

Key words: gnotobiotic piglets, SPF-status, pig milk substitute, beneficial microflora.

 

 

 

         4.

 

KhandkaryanV.N., ParkhomenkoI.A., KurmanA.F., LepetaL.V., МatyuhV.O. Influence of temperature on productivity and health of Pigs

 

This article discusses the effect of temperature on the productivity and health of pigs. Emphasizes the fact that the temperature is one of the most important parameters of the microclimate. Care must be a middle ground on this issue, since the temperature rise in a pigsty, and lowering its negative impact on the productivity and health of pigs.

 

Pigs cope with the variability of ambient temperature through the control of food intake. At a temperature which is below the optimum weights reduced by an average of 22 grams per degree. When the temperature rises to 36 ° C is reduced by 30% twins in large white breed while landaras 15%. In sows with an average temperature 33,3° C there was 13% more abortions than at their content with an average temperature of 26,7° C. When supercooling pigs decreased immune properties of the body and activates pathogenic microflora.

 

Keywords: temperature, productivity, metabolism, health.

 

 

 

         5.

 

N.D. Berezovskyy, T.S. Kodak. Age-relate chnges of growth and development of young pigs of different genotypes

 

Modern industrial pig production technology puts animals in more stringent conditions, and to possess highly pork production animals should comply with this technology.

 

In this paper the dynamics of growth of experimental animals of different genotypes. Found that the use of imported pig breeds in industrial positively affect growth and development derived feeding young.

 

The use of terminal boars from a cross-breed sows gave the most successful heterosis effect and the possibility of gilts slaughtered at 114 kg in weight.

 

Key words: hybrids, pig, live weight, linear measurement, terminal boars, genotype.

 

 

 

 

 

6.

 

L.P.Gryshyna. The influence of the number of farrowing sows on productive signs under the industrial complex

 

It is conducted an evaluation of plasticity and stability of developing signs and reproductive qualities of sows depending on the number of litters. It is established that for further breeding use (five or more litters) are sows with lower body weight at 2.72 kg on average for the herd, a long body (147.19 cm compared to 146.67 cm after the first farrowing) with higher by 0.95 mm thick bacon and aged longer of achieving the live weight of 100 kg for 2 days. As the number increases litters prolificacy rate (from 11.5 to 11.81 ch. on litter), it is because for further breeding use are highly uterus, including those with high prolificacy. The analysis of plasticity and stability markers of poor adaptability of sows from the first farrow to the process of environmental conditions (other than body length - b = 1,2776). At the same time, it can clearly be seen from the increasing number of litters the indicator of live weight plasticity increases (b = 1,0577), age achieve live weight of 100 kg (b = 1,4032) and prolificacy (b = 1,3499), indicating that the ability these females get high performance despite environmental conditions. The level of correlation between empirically and theoretically calculated values of key indicators and reproductive traits, indicates that breeding work aimed to improve the performance of pigs. The value of the coefficient of determination (R?) was quite high, especially in terms of thickness bacon, live weight and prolificacy and was from 0.779 to 0.989.

 

The analysis of environmental and genetic parameters performance proved that special attention should be given to highly plastic genotypes, which are more susceptible to factors of the environmental conditions.

 

Key words: flexibility, stability, ecological and genetic parameters, serial type, reproductivity.

 

 

 

         7.

 

V.I.Herasimov, O.V.Skliarenko, O.D.Donskyh. Peculiarities of the correlation of selective traits in pigs of different direction of the productivity.

 

In the article it is given experimental materials relatively peculiarities of the correlation between some economical useful traits in pigs of the Large White, the Ukrainian Steppe white, the Northern – Caucasus, Myrgorod and Landrace breeds which belong to meat-fat, fat and bacon direction of the productivity.

 

It has been determined the positive correlation of different levels of live weight multifertility, large  fertility, lenghth of body and girth of chests with other traits in sows of researched breeds. Between multifertility of sows and average weaning weight of piglets there is negative correlation.

 

Key words: pig breeds, correlation, economical useful traits.

 

 

 

 

 

8.

 

V.P.Rybalko, L.V.Floka. Changes of blood indexes in sows in different physiological periods

 

The article describes the changes in the body of blood parameters of sows red pig with white belt in a variety of physiological period at different levels of feeding. Found that the experimental sows during lactation had higher blood composition compared with the period of pregnancy.

 

The need for the study of blood is determined, above all, its physiological role, as well as changes in her advancing in various pathological conditions. Blood is closely linked with all organs and tissues. Together with the endocrine and nervous systems, it determines the unity and integrity of the organism, providing its homeostasis.

 

Blood - liquid connective tissue of animals, performs important functions in ensuring its life. Blood consists of a liquid and the various parts of the plasma cells. Blood carries nutrients transport, metabolites, enzymes, biologically active substances, salts, acids, bases, cations, anions, trace elements etc.

 

Blood of farm animals - not dense homogeneous transparent liquid, bright red in the arteries and reddish-purple in the veins: consists of plasma and blood cell counts (red cells, white cells and platelets, or platelets). The amount of blood in the body depends on the age of the animal, its physiological condition, the time of year and other factors.

 

Maintaining the relative constancy of its composition, the blood carries the stabilization of the internal environment (homeostasis) and provides along with the nervous system livelihoods of cells and tissues, the functional unity of all parts of the body. Blood and organs, in which the formation and destruction of blood cells (bone marrow, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, thymus) were combined into a single system of blood.

 

Examination of blood, in combination with the clinical examination of the animal reveals hidden changes in organs and tissues, determine the complications arising differentiate these diseases, to judge the severity of the disease, to assess the functional status of individual organs and systems, monitor the effectiveness of treatment and prevention activities, to predict outcome.

 

Key words: blood, meat, homeostasis, albumins, globulins hemoglobin, protein, serum, protein coefficient.

 

 

 

         9.

 

G.A. Birta, Yu.G,Burgu. Meat and fat Qualities of Different genotypes of Pigs

 

A problem of providing of population the products of stock-raising is a primary task. His decision in the nearest years is possible only on condition of sparing of the special attention rational development of such industry, as pig breedings. Pigs, as most fruitful, better utillize other animals forage and give the most output of meat and fat, as unsurpassed after calorie content, food value and taste.

 

The results of scientific researches are expounded on the study of qualities of different genotypes of pigs: calorie content of meat of the longest muscle of the back, index of meat, area of «muscular bee-entrance». Researches of meatand fat qualities conducted the pigs of breeds of large white on carcasses, mirgorodskaya, Poltava meat, and red breeds.

 

The conducted researches testify to direct dependence between the average daily increases of experimental pigs and index of meat. An increase of area of «muscular bee-entrance» is in the groups of animals, reared with higher average daily increases conduced to the increase index of meat. An index of meat of carcasses is more unit observed for the pigs of breed of Poltava meat at the middle and intensive levels of feeding. The greatest power value was characterize meat of animals of meat and fat greasy genotypes.

 

Key words: Breed, index of meat, area of “muscular bee-entrance”, calorie of meat, remaining dispersion, coefficient of determinacy, general dispersion, factor dispersion.

 

 

 

         10.

 

S. Sidashova,  L. Peretyatko.,A. Onyshehenco. Lateral differentiation   number of nipples   for pigs of different breed

 

In this article we presented the results of the system analysis of lateral differentiation patterns nipple line or the number of right and left nipples in   five Ukrainian rocks. Has two options lateral topography nipples pigs of different breeds. First - full bilateral symmetry (matching the number of full pairs of nipples on the right and left): Poltava meat and a large black pig breeds. The second embodiment differs from the presence of 20 - 30 % of individuals breeding stock unpaired nipples (lateral asymmetry): Ukrainian meat, Ukrainian steppe and Mirgorodskaya breeds. First established structured dissemination right - left asymmetry between different age, gender and production groups of pigs. Population structure of the lateral profiles asymmetry amount nipples (nipples line) is characterized by dynamic and proportional relationship between the right and left dominance of mammary gland development in groups of boars and sows. Based on the analytical results, we hypothesized adaptive discrete values of the asymmetry of left and right development of the mammary glands of pigs in the process of evolutionary adaptation to changing environmental condition. On the basis of the provisions of the evolutionary concept of asynchronous asymmetry animals, developed by Russian scientists (V. Geodakyan  et al, 1987 - 2003), anatomical asymmetry breast pigs, which outwardly appears uneven and unpaired number of nipples right and left, is a manifestation of the general biological functional mechanism of self swine populations in the process of evolution.

 

Our studies have shown that for common breeding livestock Ukrainian pig breeds characteristic left dominance in the quantitative growth of the mammary glands in females and males (from 6% to 28%) of all individuals with asymmetry nipples line).

 

Our analysis shows that the nature of the right and left asymmetry topography teats in pigs has significant influence combined impact of external factors (climatic and technological conditions of livestock farms and in different regions of Ukraine). Value and the level of influence of these factors require further study.

 

Studies of lateral differentiation of mammary development in pigs require continuation for a deeper study of the biological values asymmetry bilateral paired organs in animals. Laws of lateral asymmetry location nipples (mammary glands) in pigs of different breeds can affect the intensity of the selection process. Knowledge of the laws of fluctuations asymmetry indices of different organs and systems in animals may be important for the improvement of methods of selection of breeds and lines with high productive qualities. Creating a database based on the study of laterality of paired organs will create a comparative base population profiles asymmetry pigs of different breeds needed to identify new areas of scientific research and finding promising breeding methods.

 

Key words: pigs, number of nipples, symmetry, asymmetry, topography nipplesBreeding pigs, breed selection process, selection, laterality, structure, population profile, adaptation..

 

 

 

         11.

 

O. G. Fesenko.The results of the selection process in breeding herds of red white belt breed

 

One of the specialized breeds of meat direction of the productivity, that is used for the production of commodity pork there is home red white belt breed that is created on the basis of the difficult reproductive crossing with participation of 7 home and foreign breeds.

 

Presently red white belt breed, as well as many other, created earlier breeds, the way of development passes in modern market conditions. Therefore plant-breeding-tribal work on perfection of productive qualities in tribal herds with the set genetic and productive potential has an important value.

 

There was a positive development of breeding animals in the herd breeding farms. Body length boars aged 24 months was increased by 3.9 inches, live weight - 25.3 kg, pigs and sows were respectively: 0.2 cm and 8.2 kg. Much fertility of sows was between 10.01 - 10.49 pig, which corresponded to the "elite" class.

 

Under age achieve 100 kg live weight decreased by 11 days and was 186 days in the period experiments. The cost of feed per 1 kg of growth decreased by 1.6 feed units. The thickness of the bacon over 6-7 thoracic vertebrae was reduced from 26.9 to 19.9 mm.

 

In order to evaluate the selection process in the breed was analyzed productive change in breeding herds of red whit belt breed for 10 years breeding. The object of the research was an active part of the population pigs bred in breeding centres and reproduction.

 

The analysis of the performance of pigs’ red white belt breed over a decade selection showed that sows and boars were characterized by positive dynamics of growth and development. Reproductive properties of sows with two or more farrowing were high and superior performance 2004 by much fertility at 2.14 percent, the number and weight of piglets at weaning slot respectively 3.80 and 5.36 percent. Breeding pigs to reduce the thickness of bacon at 6-7 thoracic vertebrae led to a declining by 7 units to 19.9 millimetres.

 

Keywords: red white belt breed, selection, development pigs, reproductive qualities, feeding performance.

 

 

 

         12.

 

I.B.Bankovska, L.O.Ivanova. Formation of data bases for the analisis of meat production of pigs and the quality of pig breeding products

 

In the article it is given the sequence of creating the complex computer programs “Pig meat productivity and the quality of pig breeding products” for accounting, analysis, monitoring and prognostication of indexes of the meat productivity and meat quality of pigs. The methodology of creating data bases on the conceptual, logical and physical levels was described. It is given the description of subject region of programming with using a system analysis based on five main blocks: indexes of fattening, slaughter and the quality of carcasses of pigs, indexes of the morphological composition of carcasses, meat and fat quality. It has been determined possibilities of the programming complex in accessible electronic form to use corresponding blocks of data for prognostication, optimization and modeling quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pork.

 

It was made the accent on new ideas in reference of structuring and the technical implementation of each program – a flexible modification of the system of coding information that takes into account peculiarities and changes in the data base, connection and disconnection of records; changes in the characteristics of objects of description; unified system of naming sexes of bases of data; system of symbols and rules for marking data; base data dictionary that allows you to find necessary indexes and developing additional subprograms and other.

 

It is concluded that using of this elaboration gives the possibility to bring information to the appropriate data bases, to systematize it efficiently and receiving in-depth and analytically decorated result.

 

The developed software system is one of subsystems of the general system of a complex information providing the technological process in pig breeding which is worked out in Institute of Pig Breeding and AIP NAAS. Software resources can be successfully used in scientific researches, as well as in the manufacturing sector and in the meat industry.

 

Key words: information, data bases, software resources, pigs, analysis, fattening qualities, meat productivity, pork quality.

 

 

 

 

 

         13.

 

K.F. Pochernyaev.The effect of genetic isolation and migration on a haploid diversity Red White Belted breed meaty pigs

 

PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA major families Red White Belted breed pig identified haplogroups of open and closed subpopulations. In a closed subpopulation of pigs defined high level of haploid diversity (h = 0,635), indicating the genealogical structuring breeding herd. In due to the migration to an open subset of males, reducing the diversity of haploid (N = 0,095) occurred indirectly through predominant breeding crossbred replacement gilts. Thus, the claim that introgression is an additional cause of genetic erosion, is confirmed by the decrease in the haploid diversity.

 

Keywords: mitochondrial DNA, Red White Belted breed pig, haplogroup, haploid diversity.

 

 

 

         14.

 

A.M. Shostia. Prooxidant and antioxidant homeostasis in plasma and sperm of boars of the large black breed

 

In the article it is lit up some peculiarities of prooxidant and antioxidant homeostasis in plasma and sperm of boars of the large black breed during the period of a formation of sexual function. It was determined that a level of sperm production in young boars from 5-th to 8-th month of a life substantially increase. Receiving two ejaculates a week from boars of 9-th – 10-th month age mainly doesn’t cause lowering the quality of sperm production. During the period of a formation of sexual function in plasma and sperm of young boars, the processes of FRPОare accelerated, a level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CT) increasing, but low molecular antioxidants (CT, AA and DC) lowering. The incubation of plasma and sperm causes to the essential increasing processes FRPО and the exhaustion of a system A03, especially these tissues were sensitive to the action of a temperature factor in 5-th, 6-th and 7-th months young boars.

 

The course of processes FRPО in plasma of sperm in young boars in the comparison with sperm occur less intensively.

 

Key words: boars, sperm, prooxidant and antioxidant homeostasis

 

 

 

         15.

 

A.V. Bazalevych. Appliance of small sperm doses in pig breeding

 

In the article it has been done the analysis of the literary sources both home and home and foreign authors on questions of the appliance of small sperm doses in pig breeding. Given data testify about perspectives of the use this method in enterprises.

 

Among components of the success of the use of an artificial insemination of sows it is improving methods of the control of native sperm quality, the choice of optimal size of sperm dose and it is also using progressive constructional variants of equipment. One of the main tasks of in creasing the efficiency of an artificial insemination of sows is the intensification of using boars. On many complexes it is used sperm doses with a number of spermatozoa that is over 5 billions\ cm3. It results in increasing the live- stock of boars, the over- expenditure of feed- stuffs, an irrational using areas of premises, it is taken into consideration of boars with high genetic potential. Simultaneously, using modern methods of an artificial insemination it is possible to reduce the size of sperm doses in 3 - 5 times and don’t decrease indexes of the fertilization of sows. The significant decreasing the size of a necessary

 

single sperm dose results in reducing its cost with simultaneous preservation of the multifertility of sows .

 

A rational reduction of the size of sperm dose to necessary sizes for the fertilization furthers an essential reduction of the cost of an insemination without the fertilization of sows and as a whole the efficiency of pig breeding field. The less dose the more it can use sperm from the high valuable boars and to receive numerous offspring from them. Moreover, it allows to reduce the live- stock of boars and it means to reduce the cost of pig breeding products.

 

It is foreseen, that in average the working load on one basic boar at an artificial insemination by small doses it will be composed hot less 400 heads of sows of the couple age, while, today this index consists of about 200 heads.

 

Key words: boar, sperm, small doses, sows, intrauterine insemination.

 

 

 

         16.

 

P.V. Denysiuk, K.V. Kniaz’ieva. Some physiological basis of heterosis

 

Hybrids, including the heterotic ones, are characterized by flexibility and shakiness of heredity: first generation is very heterogeneous, and there is a complex splitting of the characteristics in it. One can think that the plasticity of the hybrid zygote is the biggest. Shakiness of heredity can be imagined as a result of its disturbance that arises from the combination of the gametes of opposite nature derived from the organisms of opposite sex of different lines (breeds). Disturbance and shakiness of the heredity of heterotic body can be imagined as oscillation-fluctuation of its structures and functions with amplitude, greater than the one with which oscillates-fluctuates nonheterotic body. The goal of the work is to build a mental mechanism of generation and realization of heterosis from the very beginning of the heterozygote formation. The method of the research is the analysis of experimental and theoretical material that relates to this goal, and is its generalization. Because opposites interconvert, one can imagine that when the alleles of male are experiencing the maximum expression, alleles of females are experiencing the minimum expression, and then ? on the contrary.

 

In homozygote, the products of one allele inhibit the expression of the second, after accumulating a certain number of it by a feedback mechanism. In nonheterotic heterozygote, the products of dominant allele expression suppress its own transcription after accumulating a certain number of them and suppress the expression of recessive allele without the accumulation of its product. In heterotic heterozygote, the products of each allele expression do not inhibit the transcription of the opposite allele, while suppressing only own by a feedback mechanism, after accumulating a certain number of them. Second generation heterozygote is less heterotic than the first generation heterozygote because of greater cytoplasm similarity, which bring gametes derived from heterozygotes compared with cytoplasm similarity, which derives from homozygotes. Heterosis, especially by the traits that characterize reproduction, strongly depends on the conditions of the environment.

 

Key words:supressis of heterosis, cell physiology, gametes, cytoplasma, gene expression, environmental conditions.

 

 

 

         17.

 

S.A. Semenov, O.A. Bindiug, S.G. Zinoviev, D.O. Bindiug. The quality of boars’ sperm after feeding them mineral bioprotectors «Mg++»

 

The lack of biogenic minerals in the diet, or failure to comply their optimal ratio leads to metabolic disorders, reduced feed efficiency, and hence the productivity of animals. Therefore, the application of complex natural mineral feed additions, specifically on the basis of magnesium salts. That is why the study of the influence of complex preparation «Mineral bioprotector Mg++», on sperm quality of boars in the relation with the biochemical composition of the sperm plasma is urgent.

 

Studies were conducted on 6 boars Poltava Meat breed, three heads in each group, in two stages: the preparatory period of 30 days, 60 days and accounting one, during which it was carried out feeding mineral addition «Mineral bioprotector Mg++». The regime of sexual load of boars in preparatory and experimental periods was 1 time for 3 - 4 days.

 

It was found that increased levels of magnesium in the diet of boars during 45 days contributed to the growth in ejaculate volume from 312.66 ± 16.629 cm3 to 329.79 ± 18.926 cm3 (5.5%), the number of living spermatozoa in the ejaculate from 65.98 ± 4.768 billion/cm3 up to 69.03 ± 2.905 billion/cm3 (4.6%) and their concentration from 268.98 ± 16.396 billion /cm3 to 276.54 ± 14.599 billion/cm3 (2.8%). The thermal resistance of sperm was the better then control on 8.47% (p?0,05) and amounted to 63.85%, which indicates a large ejaculates suitability for long-term storage. Some biochemical parameters of sperm plasma had significant changes. The number of total cholesterol in boars’ ejaculate of experimental group increased on 13.18% (p=0.006), magnesium – on 81.25% (p?0,01), but dehydroascorbic acid, but decreased by 18.56% (p?0.05). It has been determined a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase activity to 41.46% (p=0.003).

 

Key words: boars, feeding, mineral feed addition, magnesium, ejaculate, sperm quality, biochemical parameters.

 

 

 

         18.

 

A.V. Korobka, O.K. Bitlian,T.M.Konks. Influence of physical properties of components in premixes on technological process of their production, transporting, keeping and using in systems of feed distribution

 

It has been studied the physical-technological properties of premixes with different forms of microelements for the indexes of humidity, angle of natural slope, volume mass, average size, parts, relative pouring, constant of external friction and pressure allows to confirm about the similarity of their significances with standard premix KC-5 that allows its preparation, to keep and to use in systems of feed distribution .Obtained results of the distribution of different microelements in the mixture certified about their insignificant deflections from standard premix KC-5; coefficient variation of mixing the control component (vitamin A) in average was 14.5% with carbonic acid salts and 15.3% with sulfuricacid salts.

 

Key words: premix, combined feed-stuff, recipes, homogeneity, components, technological process.

 

 

 

         19.

 

O.L. Narizhna. Line measurements and indexes of the constitution of young pigs received from different combinations of parental forms

 

  The study of line measurements was carried out on different genotypes of pigs. To the experiment it was taken purebred animals of the Large White breed of English origin – the control group (II) and 5 groups of hybrid young pigs received from boars of breed Landrace (II group), Pietrain (III group), terminal boars  - line 16(IV group), terminal boars – line 304(V group) and terminal boars from combinations (Landrace x Durok x Hempshir) – (VI group).  From line measurements it has been determined the length of body, girth of chests for shoulders, highness in the withers, depth of chests, width of chests, full stretch of carpus with using line measurements and it was formed indexes of the constitution: stretchness, compactness,solidity, widely chestness, strength of bones. Line measurements were taken in 4 and 6 months. For the length of body the highest indexes were fixed in hybrid boars Landrace (119.7 cm) and terminal ones (Landrace x Durok and Hempshir) – 114.7 cm. All hybrids had higher indexes for the depth and width of chests according to their exterior parameters.         Indexes of the stretchness, solidity and compactness are increasing with the age and indexes of strength of bones are decreasing. For the index of stretchness the best animals were in II and VI groups; animals of V group in the age of 4th months had the advantage for the strength of bones and young pigs of III-group had the advantage in the  age of 6th months.

 

Key words: the Large White breed of pigs, line measurements, indexes of the constitution, constitution, exterior, hybrids.

 

 

 

            20.

 

T.V.Shcherban.Сhemical indicators of muscles of various localization in pigs of Mirgorodska breed and its crosses.

 

In the connection with the growing demand on lean pork selection work is to be aimed at increasing the carcass fleshing together with the necessary technological characteristics of  the produce. The question of influence of Mirgorodska pig breed industrial crossing with meat genotypes on qualitative indicators of muscle tissue of various anatomical background and functional predestination needs to be studied in detail, because finding better combinations to satisfy the market demand will assist in preserving Ukrainian local breeds. The results of investigating chemical components of the large lumbar, longest dorsal muscle, caudal oblique head muscle, large lumbar, ischial double-headed, broad fascia tensor, semi-membrane, internal oblique abdominal, caudal oblique head muscle testify to the increase of meat nutritional value in crossed young animals. The level of genotypic and muscle localization influence on qualitative properties has been estimated. For comparative analysis the total moisture and hygroscopic moisture (water) content, “raw” ash content, total protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus content, and caloric value have been defined. It has been revealed that young animals of Mirgorodska breed had the lowest level of ash in all the muscles, except ham. Crossed animals also exceeded the control group concerning the protein indicators nearly in all carcass parts, and the animals in group V (Mirgorodska breed + ? Landrace) were characterized by the highest protein content in the four muscles (21.242–23.986). Purebred young animals of Mirgorodska breed have had higher fat content in pork of various anatomical origin, except broad fascia tensor where the maximum index has been found in group IV – 3.868%, which is 1.283% higher than in the control group. The level of genotypic and muscle localization influence on qualitative properties has been estimated. It should be mentioned that the level of protein, fat and ash depends on morphological and functional data on 40.26% (P>.999);, fat 21.51% (P>.999) and, ash – 19.93% (P>.999), while on the genotype – on 13.14 (P>.99); 16.78 (P>.99) and 19.06 % (P>.99) correspondingly.

 

KEY WORDS: MIRGORODSKA BREED, CROSSING, CROSSES, MEAT, CHEMICAL INDICATORS, TOTAL MOISTURE (WATER) CONTENT, ASH, PROTEIN, FAT, ENERGY (CALORIC) VALUE, DISPERSE ANALYSIS.

 

Key words: disperse analysis, energy (caloric) value, fat, total moisture (water) content, ash, Mirgorodska breed, meat, crosses, protein, crossing, chemical indicators.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         21.

 

M.V Fydria. Research stress sensitivity of piglets by method “formalin spot”

 

One of main criterions of the evalution of perspective genofund of pigs is its adaptation which is determined by the reaction “genotype-environment” and the level of stress resistance to negative factors. There are many ways to study the stress sensitivity, which can be separated into direct and indirect. The indirect methods important for researches due to their easy of implementation and low cost. In this article the results of the study of stress sensitivity  in young pigs of Myrgorod and the Large White breeds and hibryd young pigs (LW ?M) by the method of “ formaline spot” under conditions of a pedigree enterprise SE “EE named after Dekabristy” in Poltava region.

 

 Key words: young pigs, stress, direct and indirect methods of the determination of stress sensitivity, method of “ formaline spot”, adaptation norm.

 

 

 

         22.

 

А.М.Saienko, V.N.Balatsky. Communication genotype loci ESR1, PRLR, GH and IGF2 with reproductive traits and individual indexes own productivity in sows interbreed type 3.

 

In pig, breeding process can be much more effective if to assess the animals and their subsequent selection, and selection in addition to traditional approaches use methods of molecular genetics. Molecular genetic analysis reveals loci of the genome of an animal that control important economic traits and develop based on their polymorphism genetic markers. Among all the known genetic markers of the most popular in recent years received a so-called SNP -marker, the nature of which is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism DNA. Attracting SNP - markers for the evaluation and selection of animals involves primarily an analysis of polymorphism and the establishment of associations with signs of productivity in specific breeds, lines and even populations where these markers will be used.

 

Known for a number of loci of the genome, which has already proved significant association with specific reproductive and feeding characteristics and meat qualities of pigs. These loci are called quantitative trait loci (QTL, quantitative trait loci). In particular, these include those that are studied in this paper: ESR1, PRLR, GH and IGF2. However, until recently, questions remain about the effectiveness of the use of these QTL in marker selection of domestic breeds, lines and swine populations. Known research on domestic genotypes pigs have fragmented and in some cases contradictory. Therefore, the analysis of individual stocks polymorphism of these markers, and search for connection with production traits is relevant and will have a significant practical importance.

 

As a result of experiments, the first time an analysis of the relationship between gene polymorphism GH BsuRI polymorphic restriction site with reproductive traits and performance indexes of their own, and found an association between genotypes GH gene with individual reproductive traits of sows of large white breed type ULW-3.

 

There were no statistically significant relationships between genotypes and corresponding production traits in sow’s micropopulation ULW-3 gene loci ESR1, PRLR and IGF-2.

 

ESR1 gene loci and PRLR trend increase in the average number of births and live pigs in the litter with genotype BB ESR1 locus and an increase in the average weight of a one pig with the AA genotype at locus PRLR of sows. Also, there was a trend to an increase in the age of reaching 100 kg. and reduction of indexes such as the length of the torso. and the thickness of the bacon, sows with heterozygous genotype GH +/.

 

Keywords: marker selection, DNA markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms, Large White pigs, ESR1, PRLR, GH loci.

 

 

 

         23.

 

D.Yu.Skarednov. Fattening and slaughter quality of growing pigs using the product deep hydrothermal treatment of soybean

 

The results of studies on the impact of the product of deep hydrothermal treatment (DHT), followed by soybean pressure of expansion for fattening and slaughter as landed Mirgorodskoy young pigs breeds of Landrace and terminal. The results indicate that the use of the diet of pigs DHT soybean product, followed pressure of expansion in the amount of 17% by weight compared to the soy meal and meal provided high quality feeding and slaughter pigs - average daily gain were 770 g to 672 g of controls (14 6% R?0,05 relative to control), while the term achievements live weight of 100 kg was reduced to 11 days, which contributed to higher payment of feed per 1 kg increase. The data on slaughter pigs qualities ascertain the fact of significant improvement of slaughtered pigs qualities - reduction in average carcass, pork fat thickness and increase the slaughter withdrawal.

 

Use in diets for growing pigs DHT soybean product in an amount of 20% by weight of the feed did not give the expected result: the data below the figures for fattening and slaughter a group using this product in an amount of 17%.

 

Key words: fattening and slaughter qualities, pressure of expansion, product DHT, soya meal, cake, average daily gain, payment feed.

 

 

 

         24.

 

I.A.Parkhomenko, K.F.Pochernyaev. Basic biochemical factiors of boar taint and methods of its reduction

 

One of the problems of the European Union in livestock and pig production in particular is a political decision to ban from 2018 surgical castration. Association Agreement Ukraine with the EU, which will replace the Partnership and Cooperation sets goal of Ukraine's integration into the EU internal market and the single regulatory space in most sectors of the economy and social life. Therefore, the study of various aspects arising in consequence of the ban surgical castration gain relevance. The article discusses the basic biochemical factors of specific boar taint and summarized the main methods developed to minimize it.

 

Key words: boar taint, androsrenone, skatol, marker selection.